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Full text of "Design and details of a reinforced concrete harbor light house"

DESIGN AND DETAILS OF A REINFORCED 
CONCRETE HARBOR LIGHT HOUSE 



H. 'R. MATTHEI and I GDERIN 



Armour Institute of Technology 



i 9 08 




Illinois Institute 

of Tcchnoiogy 

UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 



AT 119 

Matthei, H. R. 
Design and Details of a 
reinforced concrete harbor 



For Uss In Library Only 






DESIGN and DETAILS 

of a 
REINFORCED C0"C: 
HARBOR LIGHT HOUSE- - 
A Thesis presented by 
H. R. EATTHEI. 
J. GUERIN. 
to the 
PRESIDENT AND FACULTY 
of the 
ARMOUR INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 
for the Degree 
of . 
BACHELOR of SCIENCE in CIVIL-ENGINE T HING 
having completed the prescribed course of study in 
CIVIL ENGINEERING 
Ch 







lUNOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY 

PAUL V GALVIN LIBRARY 

35 WEST 33RD STREET 

CHICAGO, IL 60616 X>*-e^_ Jy' 



^J 






V&pu£tk~. 



SPECIFICATIONS. 

For A Reinforced Concrete Harbor Light-House, 

Artiele I. 

Section 1/ General description of work. 

The work will consist of furnishing all materials and 
labor required to build and erect, at the proposed site, in 
accordance with the following specifications and the accomp- 
anying plans, and under the direction of an engineer appointed 
by the party of the first part, a reinforced concrete harbor 
light-house. 

Section II. Inspection. 

The engineer shall have the right to inspect or to cause 
to be inspected all materials and labor furnished by the con- 
tractor. He shall reject at his discretion any material or 
piece of workmanship which is not in accordance with these 
specifications. 

Section III. T/orkmanship. 

All workmanship shall be first-class and in accordance 
with the directions given by the engineer. 

Section IV. Cement. 

All cement used shall be Portland Cement. It shall be 
tested by the engineer. It sh-Il be sound, free from all 
lumps which cannot be readily crushed between the fingers. 
Its specific gravity shall be not less than 3.1C Briquettes 
of neat cement, after one hour in w^ter and twenty three 
(25) hours in air shall show a tensile strength of not less 
than one hundred seventy pounds per square inch. After one 
day in water and six days in air they shall show a tensile 
strength of not less than four hundred fifty (450) pounds per 
square inch. 

Section V. Sand. 

All sand used in concrete shall be coarse, clean and 
sharp. 

Section VI. Stone. 

All stone used in concrete shall be crushed limestone. 
The stones shall be as nearly cubical in shape as possible. 
Ho stone used in the foundations, up to elevation plus twenty 
( 20) shall be in its greatest dimension too large . to pass 
through a ring two (2) inches in diameter, unless expressly 
permitted by the engineer. 

Ho sto#e used in the walls or in floors above elevation 
plus twenty ( 20) shall be in its greatest dimensions too large 

20761 



,) pass through a one (1) inch ring. All stone used shall 
be "crusher run", with the pieces of a larger size than as 
above specified, screened out. 

Section VII. Concrete. 

Concrete, where possible, shall "be mixed by a mechanical 
miser of a type approved by the engineer, or where mixing is 
done by hand, a method shall be used which will, in the opin- 
ion of the engineer, produce results equally good as those 
produced by the mechanical mixer. Bo retempering will be allow- 
ed. When the work of depositing the concrete is suspended 
temporarily the surface shall be left rough. Before begin- 
ning anew to place concrete the surface of the concrete shall 
be thoroughly swept off and wet. 

Section VIII. Reinforcement. 

All reinforcement excepting that in the roof of the 
keeper's house shall consist of corrugated bars, of the di- 
mensions shown on the plans, of square section. These bars 
shall be of medium steel, having a tensile strength not less 
than; sixty thousand '60, 000) pounds per square inch and an 
elastic limit not less than one half of the ultimate strength. 
They shall bend with one hundred and eighty (180) degrees on a 
radius equal to their own thickness. The reinforcement in the 
roof of the keeper's shouse shall be of the style known as 
"Trussit reinforcement". 

Section IX. Timber. 

All lumber used shall be straight, sound, free from wind 
shakes, loose of decayed knots, or other defects which may, in 
the opinion of the engineer, be detrimental to the rapid progress 
and successful completion of the work. 

Article II. 

THE FOUEDATIOXTS. 

Section I. General description. 

The foundations shall consist of a timber crib enclosing 
a solid concrete pier extending from elevat ion minus twenty- 
five (-25) to elevation plus twenty ( 20) and resting upon 
four concrete columns which shall in turn be supported by the 
bed rock. 

Section II. Crib. 

The timber crib shall be built on shore according to the 
dimensions shown on the drawings, and of the materials, and in 
the manner hereinafter specified. As soon after the completion 
of the crib as the weather conditions will permit, it shall be 
floated in place and moored to four stout clumps of piles. 



placed as directed by the engineer. Concrete shall then be 
deposited on the floor of the crib, as rapidly as possible, 
care being taken that the crib sink evenly, until all six sides 
of the cutting edge rest upon the bottom of the lake. Air shall 
then be pumped into the working chamber until the water recedes. 
Struts shall then be placed under the floor as shown in the 
plans and excavation shall proceed until the cutting edge has 
reached elevation minus twenty five and five tenths (-25.5). 
As soon as the struts are in place, concrete will be deposited 
in the upper part of the crib until its top is at elevation 
Zero (0). This concrete shall be deposited as expeditiously 
as is consistent with the allowance of sufficient head room in 
the working chamber for the men to work to advantage. When the 
cutting edge has reached elevation minus twenty five and five 
tenths (-25.5) the excavation for the lower caissons shall be 
begun. lo excavation shall be done in any well until all the 
wells previously dug have been filled with concrete up to ele- 
vation, minus twenty five (-25). 

Section III. Sheathing. 

The Sheathing forming the outer wall of the crib shall be 
of white oak, of the quality described in Article One, Section 
Sine, of these specifications. It shall consist of three four 
by twelve inch (4" x 12") planks surfaced on four (4) sides, 
making a wall twelve inches thick on each side of the crib, ex- 
tending from the cutting edge to elevation plus five ( 5). 
These planks shall be firmly spiked together in the form known 
as Wakefield sheathing, i.e. the edge of the middle plank shall 
be at a distance from the edges of the side planks, equal to 
one half (l/2) the width of each plank. When three planks 
have been spiked together in the manner above described, they 
shall be tightly fitted and spiked to the set below and fast- 
ened by means of drift bolts to the uprights at the corners and 
at the middle of each side. 

Section I T » . Upright:; & Interior Bracing. 

All uprights and interior bracing shall be of the quality 
described in Article I. Section Eine of these specifications. 
They shall be accurately fitted and firmly fastened by drift 
bolts as shown on the plans. 

Section V. Spikes. 

Spikes used in the sheating shall be boat spikes of the 
best quality eleven inches (11") long. They shall in all cases 
be driven from the inside of the crib. They shall be not more 
than eighteen (18") inches apart on a line parallel with the 
edge of the planks and staggered. 

Section VI. Drift Bolts. 

All drift bolts shall be of a good quality of soft steel, 
five eights (5/3) of an inch in diameter. They shall be driven 



into holes made with, an auger Bine sixteenths (9/16) of an 
inch in diameter. They shall be used to connect the sheath- 
ing and rangers to the uprights and at all joints in the in- 
terior tracing. Where drift bolts are used to connect sheath- 
ing with rangers, holes shall be bored from the inner side of 
the ranger to a point within one (1) inch of the outer sicie of 
the sheathing. The drift bolt shall then be driven well home 
into these holes. At all other points the drift bolt shall 
penetrate through the entire thickness of the timbers to be 
fastened together and, where there is room, shallproject and 
be bent over against the side of the timber. 

Section VII. Roof of working chamber. 

The roof of the working chamber shall be of reinforced 
concrete three feet three inches (3* 3") in depth. It will 
be built as shown in the plans and in accordance with the 
specifications for concrete in Article One, Section Seven and 
Eight. It shall be firmly tamped. The top surface shall be 
left rough. It shall be given at least one month to set before 
the crib is floated in place. 

Section VIII. Hings in lower caissons. 

The rings in the lower caissons shall be of the best quality 
medium steel having a tensile strength not less than sixty 
thousand (60,000) pounds per square inch and a modulus of 
elasticity not less than half of the ultimate strength. They 
shall be accurately centered and shaped in the form of a cir- 
cle and care shallbe taken in hauling them so that they may 
not be sprung out of shape. Any rings or parts of rings which 
the engineer may reject shall be immediately set aside and re- 
moved at the earliest opportunity from the site of the work. 

Section IX. lagging in lower caissons. 

The lagging to be used in the lower caissons shall De of 
hardwood three "oy six inches (3" x " n ) in section, surfaced 
on two sides and matched. Any knot extending the entire 
width of the piece shall cause its immediate rejection. Ho set 
of lagging shall be of greater length than four (4) feet ex- 
cepting by special permission of the engineer. There shall 
be at least two )2) steel rings used to brace each set of lag- 
ging. 

Section X. Lock shafts. 

The lock shafts shall be of riveted steel pipe with 
flanges as shown on the drawings. A gasket of good quality 

of rubber shall be used at each pair'of flanges. These 
flanges shall be tightly bolted together and an iron washer 
shall be provided with each bolt. Care shall be taken to insure 
a tight fit between the trap door of each look and the door 
above it. 



Section XI. The tie rods in upper part of crib. 

The tie rods shall consist of medium steel dock rods one 
and one quarter (1 l/4) inches in diameter. They shall he 
placed as shown on the plans. They 3hail he provided with 
button heads, nuts and washers. The holes, in the timber, 
through which they pass shall be bored with an auger of the 
same diameter as the rod. 

Article III. 

The Keeper's House. 

Section I. General description. 

The keeper's dwelling sha2>l rest directly on the founda- 
tions. It shall conform in all respects to the dimensions shown 
on the drawings. 

Section II. Walls. 

All walls shall be of concrete of the quality described 
in Article I. Section III. of these specification. Both 
interior and exterior walls shall have a facing of grout one- 
half (1/21 inch in thickness on both sides. The grout shall 
be a mixture of one part cement to two parts sand. 

Section III. Doors. 

The outer door shall be of a good quality of sheet steel, 
built up as shown in the drawings. 

Section IV. Windows. 

All windows shall be of a good quality of plate glass of 
double thickness. 

Section V. Window frames and sash. 

All window frames and sash shall be of heavy, pressed 
galvanized iron, built up according to the dimensions and in 
the manner shown on the drawings. 

Section VI. Floors. 

The tower floor shall be of moorish tile laid on the 
concrete foundation. The floor of the store room shall be of 
reinforced concrete. It shall rest on the walls of the house 
and of the tower. Two I - Beams shall also be used as 
shown in the drawings. 

Section VII. The Hoof. 

The roof of the dwelling house shall be of reinforced 
concrete. The reinforcement shall be of the trussit type and 



shall conform to the specifications of the "General Reinforce- 
ment Company" for that type of reinforcement. 

Article IV. 

The Tower. 

Section I. General Description. 

The tower shall rest directly on the foundations and shall 
he firmly anchored thereto by steel rods as shown on the draw- 
ings. The wall shall he of rinforced concrete with at least 
one half (l/2) inch facing of grout. 

Section II. Tower Stairway. 

The steps of the stairway shall be of east iron with the 
upper sides corrugated. These steps shall rest upon iron ri- 
sers and shall be firmly fastened to them as shown on the draw- 
ings. These risers shall be cast with collars which fit around 
the main steel column. 

Section III. Railing. 

The stairs shall be provided with a railing which shall be 
of one (1) inch cast iron pipe supported on brackets, anchored 
to the walls by means of anchor bolts embedded in the concrete 
while the walls are being built. 

Section IV. Main Column. 

The main column shall be a circular steel shell, built 
up in sections of the dimensions shown in the plans. The joints 
in this column shall be made by means of flanges and these 
flanges shall be securely bolted together. 

Section V. Window Frames. 

All window frames and sash shall be of the best quality 
heavy pressed galvanized iron. 

Section VI. Watch room floor. 

The watch room floor shall be of reinforced concrete con- 
forming in quality to the descriptions given in Article I of 
these specifications. The floor shall be covered with a good 
quality of Moorish tile. It shall be supported by the tower 
wall and by six brackets of reinforced concrete as shown. 

Section VII. 7/atch room Port-holes. 

The port holes in the watch room shall be of plate glass 
They shall be framed with brass and hinged at the sides in ord- 
er to be opened. 



Section 7111. Watch room stairs. 

The steps shall consist of corrugated steel plates con- 
nected by angle irons to steel plates bent in the form of a 
helix. All shall be accurately fitted as shown on the drawings. 

Section IX. Railings. 

The railings and uprights shall be of brass tubing, bent 
and accurately fitted as shown on the drawings. 

Section X. Lantern Room Floor. 

The lantern room floor shall be of plain concrete floor 
resting on steel I Beams which are, in turn, supported by the 
watch room wall. The concrete shall conform to the description 
given in Article I. Section III. of these specifications, and 
care shall be taken to place the I Beans in their proper location 
as shown on the drawings. 

Section XI. Glass in lantern room. 

All glass shall be of the best quality plate glass of 
double thicness, bent accurately to the radius shown on the 
drawings. It shall be fastened by a suitable clasp to the 
frames. 

Section XII. Frames in lantern room. 

The frames for the glass in the lantern room shall con- 
sist of T Bars. These T Bars shall be embedded in the con- 
crete wall and shall extend through into the lantern room 
floor. 

Section XIII. Sailings. 

The railings on the balcony of the lantern room shall be 
of wrought iron pipe of a good quality, bent to the proper 
form and supported on wrought iron uprights, imbedded in the 
concrete floor. 

Section XIV. Flue above lantern. 

The flue above the lantern shall be of a good quality, 
galvanised iron, extra heavy and securely built as shown on 
the drawings. 

Section XV. Lantern room roof. 

The roof of the lantern room shall be of steel plate. 
Sections of the roof shall be bent to the shape shown on the 
drawings and riv ted together before the roof is raised above 
the floor of the lantern room. 



Section XYI. Fittings above roof. 

All fittings above the roof shall be of a good quality 
gray iron, accurately cast as shown on the drawings. 



COTTU 1 ' T OyS . 

for 

RAP.30F. LI0 T ""-" 



Cast iron weighs"^/^#/ cu. ft, =,27#/ cv • jn « 
Weights , 
it of spire = Z±f*^xj>.<?^ lt*i?jsjLvrL#',66/ 



Weight of cellar above spher =/_y /_7 =/ .^ 



t of spher ^^^^^^r" ' 
J, llarbelow spher. \?j., ¥ l&*-*Z&3***** -+'*' 



/7Z0 



'" igh J destal 
Taking sections/^ apart $iam ters fzjj 'J*' '* 

* 2- 

+ 7?S^xf 5-x 2 7a ^?^-B^c%-f, 7<r' ! ~ ~f^o i ~-t fTT^-froo^ '¥. <?d - /&~g~§~ 

2 

+ .7&F?A/,£-x.2? > z^&a *- 22-. z£*+- £<?. go *--2. 3. zjt ~ + . 70s** 3 *-2>* C^-sB J 

£■ & 



Weight of cover-plate. 

Circumference of base of cone= 2-* ^//c?,/^ = 3&0' 
Circumference of circle into which would be developed= 

Slant height of cere with plate taken out= V &ob*-*-/zTao ~/9.s~ 
ht of plate = fj^-x *'* z (&tt t --rtt-*)*& ".za/^/atc** 

Total weiht acting on plate s^M«^«4*«r^v/fi <>•«:» a«« »/*w * 
Z. plate makes with vertical = tan" £Z. -S£°/?' 

Stress in plate = t3/Q = 23C>f 

cos £*'"?' 
Horizontal compont = 236£~ s in^ "'** ' = 'fes* 

height of window and sash = {£./**? *Jt.*A*3AA***it/»*/*0*s*+=X2+ m 
Diamet er of circle furnishing reaction =£-6" 
C i rcumf e renc = ^a.7*M ' c «*«?<* " 
Stress per" = ^Jf^ *6.2* 

To tal Rearing stress due to steady load = £«2x^t ^>/42. •= 632. 4 * 
Assume f at /«?<??<? # per sq . in. in order to allow for wind 
s t r esses, ,,, 

As 



Assume ^- plat 



a 



L. =.&7aJ~3~ 



WSight of Ts. 

/ o -/<>■% ' Ts . ©3.7 #/* t ,=/9JT: ' 

of all acting on floor excepting lantern =.222°# 

Lantern Room Floor. 




Assume weight of floor 

sections resting or. CD, 

then AB support onl" then 

1 ant e m we i gh i n g 4000 £ 
1,000 

5 _J 



&41 

7 bh of outside arc of hole for stairw 



*e 3^5- X Zfr+S^ ^ 

• moment atyr-g)*'—*** 

f s = /3(JOO%?" 

Z =/.9£ 
Use a </" ^ -r' I Beam w] 
Z = 3 

Then assume a floors" 
thick 



<?' 



-h of inside arc = x 
x = L£. \ x=/-7/' 

Area of hole =diff rence in area betwe 
A = ( /a J. tr) - ft a /, //J = #. te a' 



<£* OFF & OGH = A 



Weight of floor ={C5./-/^ Al^/fl - o. /^* & x jjro ^//<?00 % 

Since part of this load goes directly tc the wall , it will 
be safe to consider the total floor load evenly disl 

over the beams CD 



Concentrated load from lantern =/&&& # at each I beam AB 

Concentrated load above, including roof =Jdf* 



Re = J/06O 



■jfJ~T/&^ 



Off£ 



Max . M = AZ I21&V& xjr.4,^ -(jrjo> a jt**~a ji^) -- (drjrjr * 2 . £*sr)-(/<?0&* tu 



Max. M. -.JL74S&0 in. ibs 

Use an^"-/^# I beam 



Weight of railing around lamp 

Length of railing =«?^£^2 
/ir M Wrought iron pipe wt ighs«2^^#/f t . 
^. railing posts of /;£ " pipe-?' high 
Total weight on =^3a37, 6??£)+S<c*<iLl * <^-6'9 ^J7*^ 
Total weight on wall ■*&?* *?&&&) -tt-/A/o, <?a/<&) *-£?£> —J9367* 
Radius to outside of watch room wall = >' 
Hei ;ht of watch room -& L s"- &,2&-' 
Radius of lantern room = <?'-&." — •f'Mf 7' 

it f-rom lantern room floor to bottom of plate = /#'-3jr"- /o. 2&* 



Height of roof plate =2-6" " = 2.<sr' 

Radius of roof plate at base = ■? '- 9"^4.7J'' 

Diameter of ball = £2"=/.gJ3&' 

Area of ball under pressur ~ /?o c" =^/.32 zy' 









-U 


1 




T 
















z 




•ROD F 
-PLA7E. 




■<= 


LANTERN 


3 




ROOM. 




< 






4 






30M, 



Wind pressure =50#/ ft . 

Sec I, pressure= /, 32A<Fi2 -66** 

" 3 S = JT£> A /^, 2</J7A-?.fe<,/ ^-2/44 



Moment section 1= 6,6a t&.2^'+-/£>.2<?t7-t-2-&'-t'/.i 

Moment section 2= 

207 X(S.2^ ya .£f/^f-£. £T) = &££//£ A6s 

^ s 

Moment section 3= 

Moment section 4= 



1 overturning moment = /4&&J'J~&&/1~2&78£ +-102)0 -^6 2.7/ f7r,/6^ 
Height of center of pressure from line AB= *?&27/ ~<?2&j% 

To tal 
Total pr ssure = *?&2 

Total weight tending to prevent over-turning ±/fJ7<? + weight 
of wall 

Assume watch room wall 6" thick ^ 

T "e i gh t f wal 1 = (//». ^7<r - tteaa)* Z f&gSx /<r& - afff*' 

Total weight tending to prevent over-turning about section 

A" : = 2.0<iu£~0 -/- / ?£?0 - 3<?-?^>& jst - 

Point of application of resultant 

x = distance of point of application of resultant fr 
from center -Jt - <?. 2B& /.*=//*' 

**&* 3 <??£-£> 

Since resultant comeswithin middle third of base, no reinforce- 
ment will be required. 



3J" 
Dead load compression on one bracket = &#v2.<? — ^^^i> ^ 

6 

Total compression on one bracket = ^6<?^r 1-44^6 '- 7<5'?0 t * 
Depth =6" With = <?^-</cj - sr.x" 

M - fdA tj d = /,£ / =/a"tj = S3 000" 

A = O. #62 ZT " 

Use 2I - £- Round bars for reinforcement in compression. 
Watch Room Floor 

Weight of steps = /<> - J. A ^«as| ^ 4>r*~ /,e?i> ^ c ' :iS ' iron 
Weight of plates supporting steps (steel) = 

""eight of railing = 

2.X//j(/a^A o.7Sj^a/a i£££ + Ux/67% ****** /X ±£-_)i-4xj!<,A,7js-7* M t£? *°° 



Total eight of stairs = /£<? ^/SJ-rJ*'* ~*?f~2> 



Assume weight of stairs ac Lt center of two beams ^ deep 
Unsupported length - // ' 



Allew 100 load on each step 

w atch Room Floor (continued) 



*-** 



H 



r- i r -*: 

Reaction = /?J~jr// ^-^^s +. 3S& - / 3<^ -^ 

M. max = £032j-xjr,j$ -(/&-**:** 2.. **2} x'2- - <5~J '?&<? //?./^ 

V = f &AX, 

J£"square corrugated bars 
Asarea of reinforcement per foot 

fy = /30/?0 

A = /,^~" # Spacing = -^7? 

Area of 4F> ^- bar = £*?"= a,«2.^^" spacing = <f-%" 6,**S. 

Number bars per foot = /^/g 

""?.lls under Watch-room 

Total compress: >n = at bottom of watch room floor = 

Total load = j-£&/a ** 

If v/all under watch room floor is 6 " thick then radios to C. § 

of wall = -9.2.S- ' 

Area = 2*4. 2S*&./r/*- *■£*'** = J422. a'' 

Stress per sq . in . ~ £££/£.- 30./? ** 



ht of brackets =f£±**2x j.s)H-^*/<*r*'- A f**ijrffx**»** 

H = depth in feet to which *" wall is allowable 
Sd<?/o t- ?3# +■ {3. /-?/*> xf.j-*. <j~x //a /a-o) ^ &t>° 



H = /><** - £?.£^f )a ^^^ * & 6-a.£- x ,6-0 




Mak •.'alls ^"' thick to base of tower 



Vertical Reinforcement, in wall of tower 
Depth /#' between watch room floor 

Total horizantal pressure above joint = 

Height of point of application of resultant horizontal pres- 

. above given plane = ~ <?^j ^ — S2- -^ ' 
Moment to be resisted by vertical reinforcement is WL^J/fJT/x/z- 

rz/4Z3#&* in. libs. 
Figure the rodk as forming a hollow shell 
Then H. =fZ Z= .cft^X&k^-^ZX 

d = outside diameter =-£*-&"=■ /**" 

d, = inside diameters = y) 

Then M. = £S#0Ox.o ffZ-C/tt V -^,J 

Depth /<? ' 

M. = /<?s23<P£>c; in. lbs. _^_ 
d = / S'ff-f £ £■ o 00 - / </23ooo) ? = /<»«£• ^ 
( /^ ^ 

Use ^'*ir" rods^"c. to C. 
A = a/^i \ x /£>£.#& *.<"? - '$-' J3 '' 

Depth &# ' 

Bending moment = £Z 9<?g2*22.fJ+- fo* fxaz/rrif^zars*?*- ft . lbs. 

Total horizontal pressure = ?#***■**-*<> =./<?*oc* 

Height of Center of Press- v joint = _£|£3£^-— /*. *> ' 

M. = gSj-f**-*/* = 2.fr£o/<?c in. lbs. 

d = //fSf a** oco — 2.+&e /*">_ )% 

d = /03. ?<*-*' ' * 

t = O, c j~" 

A s*j. ??j~~x 8.s*/6 x o. oj- £ /&.<? r? " 
Use -£"x-£" rods spaced 5" 6. to C. 

Depth »&? ' 

Bending moment *^(/<?<po <?*2.t"9) + *&-<5-£>o -£?9/<*o ft. lbs. 

Total horizontal prcssuro /&J-00** ^s*,^,*, * 

Height of Center of pressure above joint = -yy^TeT' " 

M, = &??/eo xsjz zz2.^>y<f<*^&o in. lbs. 

d = / /?$-# oo*> c oo -_ *£?_?_g^&Jt\) ? 

C /> y 

t = £>,&7 " jta 

Use_A'^._x." rods spaced^^rCto C. 



Depth 40 

Bending moment ={/(r'j~&& x 3A 6) -t-ftjoo *<r)- 6o?/oo 

ft . lbs. 
Total horizontal pressure = S&f&o -r*?<?-<?c> — ^.Sooa** 
Heighl of C. P. •gjg&.^**.*' 
Bending moment = a * 7/ a o x /2 = ^^//-^o in. lbs. 

t = / 64- £>*> -/°3. fyL'o.// " 

Usej-'V-^-" reds spaced ,2 ;£-" C . to C. 

Reinforcement in tower wall 
Depth <r& ' 

= te.3o*<ojt&6.*»)+4*x 9S&OA s) = e&-J6** ft . lbs. 
TOtalhhorizontal pressure = £.3*t><s -r/sw =^*?# <* * ^ 

of C. P. = ^^ ^ -- £*?.£' 
Bending momen = ^^/^oe> * /^ =. 7& /<? *&& in. lbs. 

d = / / & ?JL<2^ "° ^ — 'c?'** *<*■}''''* /<•> ,» .f- ■•»-'"' 

t = /C"?~/03, tr^f- -./&-" 

Use /"*/" bars'^-^'b. to C. 

Depth ^ ' 

Total horizontal pressure - &.4S00** \ 

ht of C. P. = -^V'*-?' 
Over-turni; = "^ J ■* 2* foe— /a p^^^/oj^^.y^j 

Moment = /apr*-?* a /* =• /5/g-&6 && /*?. /&^ 

& - / / ^ ^ *»*" * * Jj = _/3+£&4_£jjZ~ ) ^L /o3.?/" 
t = /c/. *>* - /o3* &/ ~-/9 " 

Use /"*/» roos^-'C. to C. 

Depth <£o"~' 

Total horizontal pressure - 2-?<?<>& ** 

t of C. P,= «^^c? ' 
Over-t ii??,^* £'?Fc>£> = /<2^£ <£>*?o ft .lbs . 

Momen = /-2-?-^ <*V^ -r x.2- = /*?<i>7/<i> fa /s?./6s 

& = / { 9b- 8 cc-o ot-o - /-^ /'/<£■&<>') ^r _ /^^ ;?y '' 
t = /<>^' <?<? ~/c&.7<? =^^2/ " 
A = /OJ. #?<$-* &./■?/<* A,j>/ =<*j. 6 2=7" 

Us /'V" bars-^J-"C. to C. 



Design of living room roof 

Horizont 1 distance from center of tower to outside and of 

Bidge rib = J2.£-' 

Horizontal distance of valley rib = 7. 00 

Height of end ridge rib from horizontal plane of outer end of 

valley rib = ?. *# ' 

Distance from outside end of ridge Fib to outside end. of vall( 



ri 

Distance fron point where ridge and valley ribswwculd meet if 

produce (: e : center of to: or in same horizontalpplane with 

ridge rib), to outside end of valley rib = /£.&/' 

.Angle made at center of tower between ridge and valley 

ribs = tan" l/^j££=-^.*p2. Jo' 

Radius of tower = -f-J"' 

x = difference between length of valley rib and distance be- 
tween outside end of valley rib and commoniintersection 
COS ?2°3o'- ±^r 



X = £■/ 

Load lenfeh valley rib = /£.?/- 6./ - /o.s-/ ' 

Distance between inside end of ridge and valley = y 
jl_ = tan ^z°3a' 

V = *•'*' 

Loaded length of ridge rib = A2.^-~^-<* *^-*^ 
Area of trapezoid = P- *2.£f,/ 2 * - K ? , 62./ 6 c? ' 

Then each s ction of roof is very nearly a trapezoid as shown 
in the figure . 

Center of gravity is on line from BCD at a distance, from AP 
from = to h_ . a_+ J 2i where 
9 a + b 



h = CD = ^VA^/ = P.* b = EF = -*/-2 
k- -*.«: - a = AB »/A*2 

1 




9 






(rK = &2lJ±-£ 
r. r 

GK = &.&7* 



AE 



/ar/ 



: .A ? : = 



r.t 



AM = -/, / -/ 
Then the loads from two sections of roof may be assumed to 



to at a distance =-#/*? from the vail of the house . 
Use We will use a concrete roof 2-" thick reinforced withtrtts- 
sit reinforcement ; will stand a load of J66 #/sq . ft. 
2 a area of trapezoid \ thickness * weight per foot, of con- 
crete and 2 x area of trapezoid x weight per sq . foot of trus 

Load on each vallejr beam =px&./'* &?***)+& ''a'**^^*** 

Nov. the effective length of the vc:.ll'^ r rib acting as ril 
th length of h« tiorisoi 1 , tion H f *h : ■ i . 

But the length of that projection as scaled from the draw- 
ing = /<>' 
Let 6 = 4- valley rib makes v/ith horizontal 

Then tan & = -^_ = 0.72-t>c 

x = horizontal distance of point of load from outside vail 
x = cos «**^ ''**"'* 

X = *Jtf' 

THEN we have the equivalent of a beam as shown in the follow- 
ing figure 3 *f°* 



P ^ = J S£*J*f£ 3 */**-" ' in . lbs . 

M max = Z/24-A9.9**'* -*<r'*° iUm lbs> 

M = fz use 6" 12 ^r# I beam 

Use a &'.-&'&.$■ I beam in ridge for stiffening. 

Design of floor above living room 

assume the greatest stress to come on a beam located 3' from 
outside wall as shown in the fi 
Length =11.5* l./ise.J-oact ^*zoc> '*/&' 
Assume floor 6" thick 

Then dead load =75#/sq? ft. 7*4^/ = 27f**fr' 

Bending moment = ^2jiju!^^^^ ~ /l/ joo i n# i os % per f t m w 
Using I" rods 2" from bottom 
M = ^fdAXf d = 5.50 " yt, ~ 16000 

.; Io9I00 =5 x 5.50 x 16 000 A 



GXjmiosi. 



5X3.50x16000 



=2.34per sq. in. =2.34 rods per foot 



Center of pressure of floor acting on I beam is 4 1 from out; 
wall ( veight of floor =4.5 +14. x7 .5x. 5x150=5200 ** 
2 2 

Center of gravity of trapezoid outside of point her load 
is considered concentrated is 2.3' along b from outer 
point of support 

of this part = 10,50+1 4. x 3#75 x.5XI50=3445# 
\fioo* 2 



4- » 



Then we have a beam thus; 



'. max 



gT200XSx^ L- - 3'?<?J'~(4 - 2' $>]«'£ - 6 f^^O 



f=I60OQO M = fZ Use a 5" C^F # I beam 

. : Z = 6?:Q0 = 4.~~ 
16000 

Design o t ion. 

Total pressure from wind above living room =24800# 
Height of its C. P. above surface =49.3+20 =69.0' 
Tot 1 horizont 1 pressure =29X21x50 =30450--' 

ht of C.P. wat r surface =30.5' 
The highest ave regis tered or fifl 

feet above the surface of still water an sst pres- 

sure recorded is 2000-f/sq . ft.; the total heighl of 
wave being 23' 

THvn sirikssaths^iierizontal pressure occurs when such a 

Th n from -ire or pi< r alon< = ^0 X 5 X 48 = I2000# 
- i ofC. P, above surface of still water = I r; .5' 
Pressure from wave portion abov = I" X \8 X ?000 + 
1440000 # 

1 : of C. P. above datum =7.5' 

Total horizontal pressure above datum = 24H00 + 30460 +12000 
+ 1440000 = 1.50725a-;" 
: ^eirh of C. p. at ; = 

12 4-8 OCX 6>1-3)+(30t56 JCQ6.&) +■ ( 1*0 CO X n-i~)~h ( ', 4 #-0CC 6A>7 f± cy 6J ' 
/, 6 6 7,2 i'O 

Total V - re EL. + 20 = ssm c+ {(J-i4iW ^xi)x 3.Hft i7T ) A R.xsx/.-r fl 



Total weight above E.L. + 20 =3771 

Weight oar foot of pier belovE.L. + 20 = 6X24_X;&2IXIX 

2. 

150 =226800# 

Area of pier = 1512 /sq. ft. 

Total weight above datum = 377150 + (20 X 226800) = 4,913150 
Cu. ft. o3 displaced = L^I2_ x I5 - U340 en. .ft. 

2 
1 of water displaced = 6~. r - X II340 = 708750 J ' 
Effective weight tending to resist overturning = £913150 ) 
- 70S750 =4,204200# 
Total horizontal pressure above datum = 1,507,250$ 

C. P? =9.0"' 
Let x =distance from axis which resultant strikes 



Th . I"07250 = _x_ 

4204400 9.7 

.: x = 3.5 

Ther f sultant comes i/£ inside the mi: 1 fourth 

Let W. = ... ' make resultant just 

cut center edge of middle fourth 
Then x =5' 

1 horizantol pressure = 1507! ■ 

W = t : ' al v ■:.•' ical ; . ssu -. 

:" .7 = h iighl of C. P. 
.: 1507250 = 5 
VI 

W = 29240 

Cul ic f ' to be left as pockets in foundations = 

4204400 - 2924005 rr .„„ 

— 2Q— — = ■■ '. cu. ft. 

Tot 1 f h Lzonta] 3537 =425 sq.in. 

20 

At bed of lak : : E.L. - 20' 
] ve be] =8' 

] 1 E. I. 0. is(8 X 2oc ) 

+(12 X62.5 X2I_ X 48} =768000+ 378000=II46000# 
2 
T ! i ht of C .P . of above press 

_t0m " 76000- XIp + 37P.00QX >' = 12.7 



Total horizontal pressure above lake bottom = 1507250 + 146000 
-(62. 5 X 144 X 4 9 )_ 

2 ' = 1507250 + II46000 - 22050°) = 24 
H . i ht of C. ?. of v lake = 
(IJ07ZSOX 2.1.07) +(1 14GC00 X U.I )-(2Z0500 *<4) p ■* , ? ' 

Let W = 3igb reqmired 1 of ] 
resultant come within mid - 

Then W = 2432750 



22 . 5 

.: W=II503IS •■' 

Area of pier = 1512 so. ft. 
.: ight of •:■ t r displaced = 1512 X 20 X 62.- = IB900 >0# 

Total wei. it ii re bed :>f lake = II~0^I' ' + 

1890000 = I3393I76 " 

c 1 . n = I3393I76 - 292 

= I046< III 

Depth of soil r quir d b 1 dat m op] v dv rturnii 
=D 

Then sine Ler = 15 12 sq . 

.: 1512 D X 150 = I0469III =46' 

15 12 X 150 

If e leave no pock ts the: = 

=13393176 - =8, ), 1 datrm r 

b e 1 o e" 
D i = D 

D = I-5/2PX/5 =6490?<££ D= ,3 7' 

Cc fficient of frict ' .■ clv 

= 0.2 

Area of concrete required to s 

13, < ,1 =sq. ft. 

U a I : 2 : i03 sq . in. 

A = i:T95I7"_ =116. sq.in. 
800 X I ' ' 

If v/e lis a: 1 11= 38. 7' sq . 

d =diar 



^--mk 1 - 



If the whole pier i." sunk to a t -,, } ~ - lake 

a of structure f-^J is 4?/JS0+fiSX/&/<2X/scJ-- 

10583/50 

belo^' EL. -25 = 3 - 150 = 281002? 

: : = d lis b lo- b< 

:II6 H X 150 = 2810026 
H = I60't6o much 

If we place a 12' -ell in the c 3-7' wells 

Then : /i3. I4H.X bX&)-h II Gj i so Y H -- <2 SI002& 



.; H = 2 "1002: * 85' 
219 X 150 

J - 8' .-ells and a 12' li 

.: (113 + 3X 4 X 4 X 3.i4lo)I50 X H =2< I002< 
H = 72' 

: - 8' .Telia an. I - 12' tc rock 

Working C 

Press sq' ar f o' at top of chamber = 20 x 62.5 = 
=I2500# 

= (1250+ 5 X 125) = I r "-^ sq.ft. 

Av rage press r = I ' - + 2 . ' = 1565^ /sq.ft. lllv 

£ = I - sin 2 

p l + sin 

= 20° for soft fii I 
Horizontal pressure per sq . ft. = I - .3420 x I" j ~<" /sq. 
ft . 1 + ./4 '!J 

] sressur on one side of crib = 24 X 5 X 770 = 92400# 

Bendir rt c I foot = : ~0 x 12 X I? = IT 

8 
Using oak sh etin , f = 800#/sq . in. 

Z =J_ bd b =12" 

6 ^ 

d =t /6 / I16 7J.O * =11" 

Use -3" - '" X I 2" white oak, 



W ".:: Ch Vber Br cin, . 
Stress = P = 40000^ an each ran 
S= area of cross secti 
f = safe compression stress of pine = 700#/ sq.in. for white 

pin.: 

1 = length = I2» = I :" 

h = smallest dimension of pi c 

Z = f - f x i 

S loo n" 

" X 10" 
Stress on ach 
Then 40000 = 700 - 7 X 144 = 574 

S 8 

S = 70 sq . in. ar . 

Ar;a of n 8" X I i" c =80sq . in. 
Use 5" X 10 " pine fo 
Stress on radial bracin. = 
Try a 10" 10" pine wood. 
4 7000 700 - 7 X 13X12 

S = TO" = S =79 

10" 7. 10" "ill do. 

:; n 1 = " = r ' " 
Try an 8" X 10" 

4 70".Q = 000 - 7 X 8 X 12 

S 8 

5 = 77 sq . in. area required 
Area of piec = "o/s .in. 

0. eiliny of Working Chamber ~f 3 

o to sink caisson =62.5 X 20 ( 6 X ? 4 x 23 I )= 

2 T2" 
= 20775 

V .'E shall have I - 4 f lock 4' in p$4aet r ov^r each hole or 
lock shafts will be Xn steel pi; ' 

12in locks vill be ( 4 X 25 X 3II4I6 X 

1 ii X I II ) 490 = 56 
12 TT 

of c ncrete' required = 2077500 - 

concrete tical fool = (6 X 2A_ x 20-50.2 ) 
X 150 =20 2 

i of concrete = 2077500 = g< i 
208." 50 



Since sufficient, concrete musl c osited as soon as the 
caisson is floated in placedwe must hav s floor of sufficient 
strength to sustain a h^i weigh' per foot =10 XI50 = I500# 

BBtsheemake this ceiling of reinforced concrete 3' - 3" deep 
on shoe 

i d = 3* 
" = 1500 X 10 X 40 = 300000 ft. lbs. 
M =5 8 

M = £dA_f 
6 

.: 500000 X 6 =300/ sq. in. of ste 1 per foot 
5 X 3 X 16000 

" e 3 r ° ds '" e required7.5 - 1.875 rods per foot 
Spacing th m at 6 ^n 

'■ 

Th. r actions n cessary to sustain this floe supplied 
by false braces "n J "il : 5 launched, "h ic' 
will the:' plied by ' t 1 

workin shamber i suffici 

I , - ■ 

action as a b 3 ' is placed abov , 

assumi] the timber in + h suj 

, "e shall 

. 

Total = (18 X 3P-350) + 50646 = 

3 r: - pi 







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